Harold Berman’s “Law and Revolution” refers to the “Norman Anonymous” of 1100 as the “last important pre-Western (that is, premodern) treatise on government”. After describing some of its arguments (contrasted with John of Salibury’s later “Policraticus”) he says “In all these matters the Norman Anonymous represented the ancien régime, the pre-revolutionary order which dated from Carolingian times and before”. This is ironic because Wikipedia says the term primarily refers to a period between the 14th and 17th centuries. In popular imagination it is linked to precisely the alliance of throne & altar which post-dates the “Papal revolution” that concerns this book. Relative to that order of course, the more tribal/Germanic order with a less distinct church could be considered “ancient” I suppose, but usage trumps etymology.

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